Table 1

States of each control signal at each step.

  S1 S2 Description of the step
Step 1 CLOSED OPEN Normal operating conditions
Step 2 OPEN OPEN Voltage transient and Voc measurement − Open circuit conditions
Step 3 OPEN CLOSED Current transient and Isc measurement − Short circuit conditions
Step 4 CLOSED OPEN Voltage and current transient − Normal operating conditions

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