Table 2

Description of used parameters for energy balance calculations in equation (5) to achieve saturation temperature of backpowered photovoltaic modules.

Symbol Description Unit Value
Tcell Solar cell temperature K  
Tenv Ambient temperature K 298.15
h Convective coefficient W/m2/K 6 (derived from [21] for no wind)
kEVA, kg, kbs Thermal conductivity of encapsulant, glass and backsheet W/m/K 0.34 [22], 0.8 [23], 0.25 [24]
LEVA Encapsulant thickness mm 0.45 [23]
Lg Glass thickness mm 2 (HJT), 3.2 (PERC + IBC)
Lbs Backsheet thickness mm 0.35
σ Stefan-Boltzmann constant W/m2/K4 5.67 ⋅ 10−8
A Solar cell area cm2 243.7 (HJT + PERC), 150.0 (IBC)
ϵg Emissivity of glass 0.9 [25]
ϵbs Emissivity of backsheet 0.83 [24]
α Absorptivity of solar cell 0.93 [26]

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