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(a) Tandem cell efficiency as function of top perovskite energy level shift near the perovskite/HTL interface. (b) Tandem cell efficiency as function of bottom perovskite energy level shift near the perovskite/HTL interface. Both the conduction and valence bands are shifted by the same amount. In contrast to no shift in energy levels, circle and triangle marks show increase and decrease in the efficiency, respectively.
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