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Fig. 1


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Kelvin probe force microscopy setup schematic. The conducting cantilever carrying the KPFM tip is scanned over a surface while AC + DC potential is applied. The AC signal is a sinusoid whose frequency matches the mechanical resonance of the cantilever. The four-quadrant detector provides feedback in order to minimise cantilever oscillation by varying the DC signal thereby yielding the sample work function compared to the tip one.

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