Tableau 3

Best cell efficiencies achieved with the semiconductor toolbox technology implemented into an i-PERL process flow (large area cells, cz-Si, 1−3 Ω cm).

Toolbox process implemented in i-PERL cell Best cell
(cz-Si, 1−3 Ω cm, 150 um thick, 148 cm2) efficiency [%]

Silane free SiCN as ARC 18.6
Implanted n +  Emitter 18.9
AlOx/SiNx rear passivation stack 19.1
Cu plated front contact 19.4

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