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Suppressing sample heating with intermittent voltage sweeps. (a) Sketch of the two types of voltage sweeps. (b) Evolution of the current density upon application of a constant reverse voltage of −3 V under illumination of one sun (INT with tpause = 1.5 s). (c) Continuously swept reverse-IV measurements (up-sweeps) starting from different voltages (solid coloured lines) in comparison with an intermittently swept measurement (dashed black line, tpause = 1.0 s).
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