Fig. 2


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Schematic diagram of KPFM system employed in this analysis. While an AC + DC potential is applied, the KPFM tip scans across a surface. The AC signal is sinusoidal with a frequency that equals the mechanical resonance of the cantilever. The four-quadrant detector gives feedback in order to minimize cantilever oscillation modifying the DC signal providing the sample surface potential relative to that of the tip.

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