Fig. 4


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Current voltage characteristics of quantitative test structures. For each contact one representative IV characteristic is shown. The measured circular pads have a printed total area of A = 3.14 mm2, the actual contact area of Ag and Si is differing due to additions in the screen-print paste. The definition of the polarity is congruent with the regular operation of a solar cell for V > 0 (forward bias) the p-contact is connected to the positive terminal of the measurement device. Therefore, in the 1st quadrant the non-ideal ohmic behavior of the electrical contact under forward bias is shown. While in the 3rd quadrant the rectifying contact behavior of the diode under reverse bias can be seen.

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