Table 2

Overview of standards regulating effluent discharges.

Standard Discharge type Nitrogen (mg/l) Fluoride (mg/l)
EU Best Available Techniques for waste treatment Direct 10 − 60 0.2 − 1
German Drinking Water Directive Direct 11 1.5
EHS Guidelines for Semiconductors & Other Electronics Manufacturing Direct n/a 5
Chinese National Standards Indirect 45 20
Chinese standard for PV
(GB 30484–2013)
Indirect 40 8
Jiangsu Prov. Ordinance of Tai Lake Water Pollution Prevention & Treatment Indirect <15 <5
EPEAT Ecolabel for PV (NSF/ANSI 457) –Inventory of water use and wastewater effluent*
–Documentation of wastewater quality (min. COD, BOD, TSS, heavy metals, pH)
Cradle-to-Cradle –No violation of discharge permits*
–Optimization of process chemicals in effluent
–Drinking water quality standards for all water leaving the facility

* Minimal requirement.

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