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Comparison of the simulated J–V curves for a standard CIGS solar cell under illumination with visible and infrared light (0.25 suns). The inset shows the difference of the two J–V curves (ΔJ). The simulation uses a standard CIGS device model  with double graded CIGS, notch position at 500 nm from the p/n-junction, electron mobility of 100 cm2/Vs and a doping density of NA = 1.5e + 15 cm3. In this example the diffusion length was set to 2.4 μm (equivalent to 30 ns electron lifetime). The interface recombination velocity was set to 1e + 3 cms−1. As the origin of the defect states within the bulk and at the interface are not known, it was chosen to use neutral defect states.
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